In 2010, the market appeared to bottom out with production continuing its downward trend and average unit values down for the first time since 1998.
U.S. production of construction aggregates in 2010 was 2.14 billion short tons valued at $17 billion, free on board (f.o.b.) at plant. Construction aggregates production decreased by 37 percent, and the associated value decreased by 26 percent compared with the record highs reported in 2006. In 2010, construction aggregates production decreased for the fourth consecutive time owing to a 6-percent decrease in the production of construction sand and gravel and a slight decrease in the production of crushed stone. The average unit value, which is the free on board at the plant price of a ton of material, decreased for the first time since 1998. There have been only three decreases on record since 1950.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines the construction aggregates industry as those companies that mine and process crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. The construction aggregates industry is active in all 50 states and consists of about 5,400 mining companies that manage more than 10,000 operations. In 2010, the 10 leading construction aggregates-producing states were, in descending order of tonnage, Texas, California, Pennsylvania, Missouri, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, New York, Michigan, and Florida. These 10 states accounted for 44 percent of the national production of construction aggregates, or 935 million short tons.
The 25 leading companies, in order of construction aggregates production in 2010, follow. These companies controlled 1,911 active operations throughout the 50 states and accounted for 41 percent of the production and 45 percent of the value of construction aggregates in the United States. The 1,911 active operations mined rock from 1,039 crushed stone quarries and 743 construction sand and gravel pits. The 100 largest construction aggregates operations produced 14 percent of the production of construction aggregates. Of the 291 million short tons of construction aggregates produced by these 100 largest operations, 68 percent was limestone and dolomite and 14 percent was construction sand and gravel. Sixteen of the largest operations did not report their production or sales to the USGS, and their production was estimated by using employment data provided by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA).
1. Vulcan Materials Co.
1200 Urban Center Drive
Birmingham, AL 35242-2545
2. Martin Marietta Aggregates
2710 Wycliff Road
Raleigh, NC 27607-3033
3. Oldcastle Materials, Inc.
900 Ashwood Parkway, Suite 700
Atlanta, GA 30338-4780
4. Lehigh Hanson, Inc.
300 E. John Carpenter Freeway
Irving, TX 75062-2727
5. Cemex S.A.B. de C.V.
920 Memorial City Way, Suite 100
Houston, TX 77024-2649
6. Lafarge North America, Inc.
12018 Sunrise Valley Dr., Suite 500
Reston, VA 20191-3434
7. Holcim Group/Aggregate Industries Management, Inc.
201 Jones Road
Waltham, MA 02451-1600
8. Carmeuse Lime & Stone
11 Stanwix St., 21st Floor
Pittsburgh, PA 15222-1312
9. Rogers Group, Inc.
421 Great Circle Road
Nashville, TN 37228-1407
10. MDU Resources Group, Inc./Knife River Corp.
1150 West Century Ave.
Bismarck, ND 58506-5568
11. New Enterprise Stone & Lime Co., Inc.
3912 Brumbaugh Road
New Enterprise, PA 16664-9137
12. Ash Grove Cement Co.
11011 Cody St.
Overland Park, KS 66210-1313
13. Dolese Bros. Co.
20 N.W. 13th St.
Oklahoma City, OK 73101-4806
14. Texas Industries, Inc. (TXI)
1341 West Mockingbird Lane
Dallas, TX 75247-6913
15. Mulzer Crushed Stone, Inc.
534 Mozart St.
Tell City, IN 47586-2446
16. Luck Stone Corp.
515 Stone Mill Drive
Manakin Sabot, VA 23103-3261
17. CalPortland Co.
2025 East Financial Way,
Glendora, CA 91741-4603
18. Granite Construction Inc.
585 West Beach St.
Watsonville, CA 95076-5123
19. Colas Inc.
163 Madison Ave., Suite 500
Morristown, NJ 07960-7303
20. Ready Mix USA Holding Co. (now part of Cemex)
2570 Ruffner Road
Birmingham, AL 35210-3914
21. DeAtley Crushing Co.
4307 Snake River Ave.
Lewiston, ID 83501-0759
22. Chemical Lime Co. (part of Lhoist North America)
3700 Hulen St.
Ft. Worth, TX 76107-6816
23. Mitsubishi Cement Corp.
151 Cassia Way
Henderson, NV 89014
24. National Lime & Stone Co.
551 Lake Cascades Parkway
Findlay, OH 45839
25. The H&K Group, Div. of Haines & Kibblehouse, Inc.
2052 Lucon Road
Skippack, PA 19474
Top crushed stone operators
In 2010, a total of 1,598 companies produced or sold crushed stone in the United States from 3,953 operations with 3,897 quarries and 207 sales and/or distribution sites. A total of 1.27 billion short tons of crushed stone was produced for consumption from surface and underground mines, virtually unchanged from the production of 2009 and 35 percent less than the record high of 1.96 billion short tons in 2006. This was the lowest level of crushed stone produced for consumption in the United States since 1997. The value of the crushed stone produced was $11.2 billion, a slight decrease compared with 2009 and 22 percent less than 2006. The average unit price for crushed stone decreased slightly compared with the average unit price for 2009, but was 21 percent higher compared with 2006.
The 10 leading crushed stone producing states were, in descending order of tonnage, Texas, Pennsylvania, Missouri, Illinois, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Virginia, Georgia, and Florida. The combined production of the 10 leading states increased by 2 percent compared with 2009 and was more than one-half of the national production of crushed stone in 2010.
In 2010, underground production, totaling 76 million short tons, accounted for 6 percent of the U.S. production of crushed stone. Crushed stone was produced in 93 underground mines in 17 states. The five leading states were, in descending order of underground production, Kentucky, Missouri, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and Iowa. Production from these five states represented 70 percent of the U.S. crushed stone produced from underground mines.
The 10 leading companies, in descending order of crushed stone production in 2010, are listed below. These companies, with 1,009 active operations that produced rock from 886 quarries, accounted for 49 percent of the production of crushed stone in the United States.
1. Vulcan Materials Co.
2. Martin Marietta Aggregates
3. Lehigh Hanson, Inc.
4. Oldcastle Materials, Inc.
5. Lafarge North America, Inc.
6. Cemex S.A.B. de C.V.
7. Carmeuse Lime & Stone
8. Rogers Group, Inc.
9. Holcim Group/Aggregate Industries Management, Inc.
10. New Enterprise Stone & Lime Co., Inc.
Top sand and gravel operators
A total of 868 million short tons of construction sand and gravel, valued at $5.8 billion, f.o.b. plant, was reported produced in the United States in 2010 by 3,956 companies with 6,342 active operations, with 7,561 pits and 63 sales and/or distribution sites.
The 10 leading states, in descending order of production, were California, Texas, Arizona, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, New York, Colorado, Washington, and Utah. Their combined output accounted for approximately 49 percent of the U.S. construction sand and gravel production.
The 10 leading producing companies, in descending order of tonnage in 2010, follow. These companies, with 609 active operations that produced rock from 621 pits, accounted for 20 percent of the output of construction sand and gravel in the United States.
1. Oldcastle Materials, Inc.
2. Cemex S.A.B. de C.V.
3. Vulcan Materials Co.
4. Lehigh Hanson, Inc.
5. MDU Resources Group, Inc./Knife River Corp.
6. Holcim Group/Aggregate Industries Management, Inc.
7. Martin Marietta Aggregates
8. Lafarge North America, Inc.
9. Granite Construction Inc.
10. Mitsubishi Cement Corp.
Top Crushed Stone Operations
1. Martin Marietta Aggregates, Beckmann Quarry, San Antonio, Texas
2. Cemex S.A.B. de C.V., Balcones Quarry, New Braunfels, Texas
3. Tower Rock Stone Co., Ste. Genevieve Quarry, Ste. Genevieve, Mo.
4. Vecellio & Grogan, Inc., White Rock Quarries, Miami, Fla.
5. Texas Crushed Stone Co., Inc., Georgetown Quarry, Georgetown, Texas
6. Lehigh Hanson, Inc., Bridgeport Quarry, Bridgeport, Texas
7. Mulzer Crushed Stone, Inc., Cape Sandy, Leavenworth, Ind.
8. Ready Mix USA Holding Co., Macon Quarry, Macon, Ga.
9. Martin Marietta Aggregates, Three Rivers Quarry, Smithland, Ky.
10. Colorado Materials Ltd., Hunter Quarry, New Braunfels, Texas
Top Sand and Gravel Operations
1. Trinity Industries Inc., Wills Point, Wills Point, Texas
2. CalPortland Co., DuPont Pit, Dupont, Wash.
3. All American Asphalt Co., Corona Aggregates Pit, Corona, Calif.
4. Vulcan Materials Co., Reliance Plant, Corona, Calif.
5. Lehigh Hanson, Inc., Irwindale Rock Plant, Irwindale, Calif.
6. Fordyce Ltd., Briggs Plant, Victoria, Texas
7. Vulcan Materials Co., Sun Valley Plant, Sun Valley, Calif.
8. Teichert Materials, Perkins Plant, Sacramento, Calif.
9. Las Vegas Paving Corp., Lone Mountain Pit, Las Vegas, Nev.
10. Vulcan Materials Co., Pleasanton Plant, Pleasanton, Calif.
USGS research methodology
Domestic production data for crushed stone and construction sand and gravel are derived by the USGS from voluntary surveys of U.S. producers. In 2010, 13,600 aggregates operations were surveyed and 76 percent of these were active. Of the active aggregates operations surveyed, 5,475 operations, or 53 percent, reported their production/sales to the USGS, and their total production was 1.41 billion short tons. Slightly more than one-third of the operations that reported their 2010 production tonnages did not report a corresponding dollar value for their production.
Production estimates of the non-responding operations were based on employment data provided by MSHA. The estimated production of 4,647 non-responding operations was 750 million short tons, or 35 percent of U.S. construction aggregates production.
Unit values are determined by the average annual f.o.b. plant prices, usually at the first point of sale or captive use, as reported by the construction aggregates producing companies. This value does not include transportation from the plant or yard to the consumer. It does, however, include all costs of mining, processing, in-plant transportation, overhead costs, and profit. For those operations that reported production only, the unit values of total production or specific end uses were estimated based on other reporting operations within the same state. AM
Jason Christopher Willett is a crushed stone commodity specialist with the U.S. Geological Survey. Wallace P. Bolen is a sand and gravel commodity specialist with the U.S. Geological Survey.